Posts on Twitter:

Meet 7 Indian women scientists - Whose and have played a huge role in the progress of and .







Our eggs-periment results. See how discoloured the shells and tooth are after being soaked in cola and soaked in coffee.












Retweet Retweeted Like Liked



is excited to be attending in for the first time 🇩🇪. Sign up for your free 👨‍🔬 & visit us in Hall A1 Stand 315 for your complimentary journal and analytica show preview 🗞️
















Study on Mathematical Model of Hydration Expansion of Steel Slag-Cement Composite Cementitious Material




We love seeing how you use our free British Week activity packs, so please share your photos with us using 📷😁 You can download yours here:













Australski znanstvenici proizveli su novi materijal za izradu ekrana osjetljivih na dodir koji se može printati, pa čak i tiskati poput novina! ➡️Saznaj više:




SURE-Farm is proposing a framework to assess the of , in which resilience does not mean just , but also and . Find here the full : ⤵️






Posts on Tumblr:

Newly-recognized species of meat-eating dinosaurs is 157 million year old
External image

Newly-recognized species of meat-eating dinosaurs is 157 million year old
https://ift.tt/3aK6M6t https://ift.tt/3aK6M6t

Submitted January 26, 2020 at 11:41PM by paramraj
viahttps://https://ift.tt/2tJPYMA

ExoMars Rover completes environmental tests

The Rosalind Franklin rover of the joint ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars mission completed a series of environmental tests at the end of 2019 at Airbus, Toulouse, France.

This included final thermal and vacuum tests where the Rover is heated and cooled to simulate the temperatures of its journey through space and on the surface of Mars.

For example, Rosalind Franklin can expect temperatures dropping to –120°C outside, and –50 °C inside the rover once on Mars.

It must also be able to operate in less than one hundredth of Earth’s atmospheric pressure – and in a carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere.

Last year the ‘structural and thermal model’ of the rover successfully completed a rigorous environmental test campaign; the latest round of tests subjected the real flight-model to the simulated space environment.

Now the focus moves to final checks on the rover systems.

This includes checking the alignment of instruments working together, such as the imaging systems, and a final functional test of the integrated system after the environmental campaign.

Once these verifications on the rover are completed, a functional check of the interfaces with the surface platform and descent module that will deliver it safely to the surface of Mars will be performed at Thales Alenia Space, Cannes, France.

The primary goal of the mission is to determine if there is or there has ever been life on Mars, and to better understand the history of water on the planet.

The rover will seek out interesting geological locations to examine with its scientific tools and to drill to retrieve underground samples, on a quest to tackle these questions.

The mission is foreseen for launch in the launch window 26 July–11 August 2020 on a Russian Proton-M rocket with a Breeze-M upper stage from Baikonur, Kazakhstan, arriving at Mars 19 March 2021.

The Sun in 2019

The changing activity of our Sun as seen by ESA’s Proba-2 satellite in 2019.

The satellite is continuously monitoring the Sun – one image was selected to represent each day of the year in this montage of 365 Suns.

The images were taken by the satellite’s SWAP camera, which works at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths to capture the Sun’s hot turbulent atmosphere – the corona, at temperatures of about a million degrees.

Throughout 2019, the Sun showed low levels of activity, as it is currently at the minimum of its 11-year activity cycle.

The most energetic flare of the year was observed on 6 May close to the eastern limb of the Sun (the left side of the Sun in the corresponding image).

It was classified as a C9.9 class flare that divides solar flares according to their strength.

The smallest are A, followed by B, C, M and X, with each letter representing a ten-fold increase in energy output such that an X-class flare is 100 times stronger than a C-class flare.

Proba-2 also performed various scientific campaigns in 2019. One of these campaigns is evident in the images above in early September, where the Sun is positioned to one side of the images.

Throughout this period Proba-2 provided extended images of the solar atmosphere to the east of the Sun, in support of a scientific study performed with NASA’s Parker Solar Probe mission.

To make these observations the whole satellite was reoriented to observe more of the solar atmosphere.

Proba-2 will continue to support scientific campaigns and missions throughout 2020, including ESA’s Solar Orbiter mission, which is scheduled for launch on 5 February 2020 from Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA.

Proba-2 has already supported Solar Orbiter during the mission’s preparation, as technology heritage has passed from the satellite’s SWAP imager to the Solar Orbiter Extreme Ultraviolet Imager.

With its suite of 10 state-of-the-art instruments, Solar Orbiter will perform unprecedented close-up observations of the Sun and from high-latitudes, providing the first images of the uncharted polar regions of the Sun, and investigating the Sun-Earth connection.

The mission will provide unprecedented insight into how our parent star works in terms of the 11-year solar cycle, and how we can better predict periods of stormy space weather.

4

Building blocks of life spotted on Rosetta’s comet hint at composition of its birthplace

Observations from ESA’s Rosetta spacecraft are shedding light on the mysterious make-up of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, revealing a mix of compounds thought to be essential precursors to life – including salts of ammonium and a particular type of hydrocarbons.

These new studies suggest the comet gleaned this material from the presolar cloud where the Solar System formed 4.6 billion years ago.
Comets have a nucleus consisting of ice and dust, from which material sublimates when warmed by sunlight to form a gaseous enveloping ‘coma’.

These comas contain a mix of molecules that largely match theoretical predictions, with one outstanding exception: nitrogen gas, which is usually present in far smaller amounts than expected.

“The reason behind this nitrogen depletion has remained a major open question in cometary science,” says Kathrin Altwegg of the University of Bern, Switzerland, principal investigator for the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) instrument and lead author of a new study.

“Using ROSINA observations of Comet 67P, we discovered that this ‘missing’ nitrogen may in fact be tied up in ammonium salts that are difficult to detect in space.”

Ammonia, a molecule comprising one nitrogen and three hydrogen atoms, is one of the main carriers of volatile nitrogen, and readily combines with various acids found in both the space between stars and in cometary ice to form salts. These ammonium salts are thought to be the starting point for far more complex compounds – such as urea and glycine, the latter of which was also found on Rosetta’s comet – that are known to be precursors to life as we know it on Earth.

“Finding ammonium salts on the comet is hugely exciting from an astrobiology perspective,” adds Kathrin. “This discovery highlights just how much we can learn from these intriguing celestial objects.”
Kathrin and colleagues used ROSINA data gathered during the final phase of the mission, from when Rosetta was performing close flyovers of the comet in September 2016. These data were somewhat serendipitous: Rosetta ventured closer to 67P than ever before, reaching just 1.9 km above the comet’s surface, and became completely enshrouded by dust.

“Because of the dusty environment at the comet, and the rotation of Earth, we were not able to readily communicate with Rosetta via our antennas at the time and had to wait until the next morning to reestablish our communication link,” says Kathrin.

“None of us slept well that night! But both Rosetta and ROSINA ended up behaving perfectly, flawlessly measuring the most abundant and most diverse mass spectra yet, and revealing many compounds we had never spotted on 67P before.”

Adding to this investigation of 67P, another recent study made use of a different instrument on Rosetta, the Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS), which operated until May 2015, to explore the properties of the comet’s nucleus.

The researchers explored several million infrared spectra gathered with VIRTIS and discovered clear signs of hydrogen and carbon chains known as organic aliphatic compounds – the first time such compounds have been spotted on the surface of a cometary nucleus.

“Where – and when – these aliphatic compounds came from is hugely important, as they are thought to be essential building blocks of life as we know it,” explains lead author Andrea Raponi of INAF, the National Institute for Astrophysics in Italy.

“The origin of material such as this found in comets is crucial to our understanding of not only our Solar System, but planetary systems throughout the Universe.”

Comets are flung inwards towards the Sun from the outer reaches of the Solar System, and may deliver material to the inner planets as they travel. This material is thought to have either come from the young, still-forming Sun, or from the interstellar medium.

“We found that the nucleus of Comet 67P has a composition similar to the interstellar medium, indicating that the comet contains unaltered presolar material,” says co-author Fabrizio Capaccioni, also of INAF and principal investigator for VIRTIS.

“This composition is also shared by asteroids and some meteorites that we have found on Earth, suggesting that these ancient, rocky bodies locked up various compounds from the primordial cloud that went on to form the Solar System.”

“This may mean that at least a fraction of the organic compounds in the early Solar System came directly from the wider interstellar medium – and thus that other planetary systems may also have access to these compounds,” adds Raponi.

Rosetta explored Comet 67P for over two years, ending its mission by crash-landing on the comet on 30 September 2016.

“Although Rosetta operations ended over three years ago, it is still offering us an incredible amount of new science and remains a truly ground-breaking mission,” adds Matt Taylor, ESA’s Rosetta Project Scientist.

“These studies tackled a couple of open questions in cometary science: why comets are depleted in nitrogen, and where comets got their material from. Inspiring discoveries such as these help us to understand a great deal more about not only comets themselves, but the history, characteristics and evolution of our entire cosmic neighbourhood.”


TOP IMAGE….This series of images of Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko was captured by Rosetta’s OSIRIS narrow-angle camera on 12 August 2015, just a few hours before the comet reached the closest point to the Sun along its 6.5-year orbit, or perihelion.
The images were taken from a distance of about 330 km from the comet. The comet’s activity, at its peak intensity around perihelion and in the weeks that follow, is clearly visible in these spectacular images.
ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA

CENTRE IMAGE….This image shows salts of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl).
Observations performed by ESA’s Rosetta spacecraft at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, revealed evidence of ammonium salts at the comet. The discovery provides a possible explanation to the nitrogen depletion mystery, suggesting that the ‘missing’ nitrogen may in fact be tied up in ammonium salts that are difficult to detect in space.
Ammonia, a molecule comprising one nitrogen and three hydrogen atoms, is one of the main carriers of volatile nitrogen, and readily combines with various acids found in both the space between stars and in cometary ice to form salts. These ammonium salts are thought to be the starting point for far more complex compounds – such as urea and glycine, the latter of which was also found on Rosetta’s comet – that are known to be precursors to life as we know it on Earth.
University of Bern

LOWER IMAGE….Mass spectrum recorded by the ROSINA-DFMS instrument on ESA’s Rosetta mission at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 5 September 2016.
Several compounds recorded by ROSINA at the comet are products of the sublimation of ammonium salts. The discovery provides a possible explanation to the nitrogen depletion mystery, suggesting that the ‘missing’ nitrogen may in fact be tied up in ammonium salts that are difficult to detect in space.
Ammonia, a molecule comprising one nitrogen and three hydrogen atoms, is one of the main carriers of volatile nitrogen, and readily combines with various acids found in both the space between stars and in cometary ice to form salts. These ammonium salts are thought to be the starting point for far more complex compounds – such as urea and glycine, the latter of which was also found on Rosetta’s comet – that are known to be precursors to life as we know it on Earth.
Altwegg et al. 2020

BOTTOM IMAGE….Signatures of hydrogen and carbon chains known as organic aliphatic compounds detected in different astronomical sources: the interstellar medium, based on observations of the Galactic Centre (top); Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, based on observations performed with the Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) on ESA’s Rosetta mission (middle); and insoluble organic matter extracted from meteorites that we have found on Earth (bottom).
The similarities between the composition of Rosetta’s comet and the interstellar medium, asteroids and meteorites indicate that the comet contains unaltered presolar material from the primordial cloud that went on to form the Solar System.
Raponi et al. 2020

youtube

I have been around farms and dairy factories to realise how the milk we consume are made. And to be honest, it isn’t as healthy as you think it is. Sure, they are treated and enhanced, but that’s precisely the problem! Excess of antibiotics leading to antibiotics resistance, hormonal enhancement leading to all kinds of problems in the human body and not to mention how the animals are used and abused for our sake, we are basically funding it.

It’s easier to just turn a blind eye and say “Well, it isn’t haram to consume it” or “Who are you to make something halal haram?”… But if you really look into it, more harm is being done than benefit, harm to human health, animals and the world.

Solar Orbiter

Studying the Sun up close, taking high-resolution images of the Sun’s poles for the first time, and understanding the Sun-Earth connection.

The mission

Solar Orbiter will address big questions in Solar System science to help us understand how our star creates and controls the giant bubble of plasma that surrounds the whole Solar System and influences the planets within it.

It is an ESA mission with strong NASA participation.

The launch
Launch date: 7/8 February (EST/CET)
Launch window: February 2020
Launch site: Cape Canaveral, USA
Launcher: Atlas V 411

Indian Education System Sucks

I guess I’ve basically conveyed the emotions of thousands of students in India. The education system is so idiotic it makes Donald Trump look smart. Why have I started this rant out of nowhere?? Well, let me tell you a story….


So I’m good at maths, I even enjoy maths (surprising for some, I know). I’m not always amazing at it, I do make calculation errors but I still love the subject. So we had this proof in triangles that I successfully proved using concepts from the book (eventhough I knew much more effective methods) and I still got some marks deducted for the question. Naturally I asked the teacher why?? I thought that maybe I used a concept wrong or the calculation had errors. She reads my proof and then looks me straight in the eye and says, “This proof is correct but it’s not the one in the book." 


Yup! I got less marks because I used creativity to give answers rather than mug them up. Hilarious right!!


I can’t really blame the teacher though. She explained to me, "If it were up to me I would have given you the marks but when the paper goes for checking in another school for the boards (Boards are basically the main exams like SATs in India. Takes place in 10th and 12th, I’m in 10th, compulsory for all. Checked by another school’s teacher) the teacher who checks your paper may not be very smart and if you don’t write the proof as it is described in the book you’ll get your marks deducted.”


So basically I’m being punished because of another teacher’s incompetence. How just. This will surely be beneficial to develop our minds.


I always thought that maths helped increase your intelligence, not your memory power. 


It’s not just about maths. Science, social science, english, etc. Everything is based on mugging up. I can get that you must stick to what the course contains and not go beyond that, but it’s not that, it’s writing the exact words of the books, the exact terminology. Doesn’t matter if your answer held the same meaning, you must stick to what the book has written.


There are other problems too.


In english, you write an answer within the word limit they say you must explain more and when you explain then they say that you’ve exceeded the word limit. When you keep both in mind, they say you’ve cramped too much information into the answer, it wasn’t needed. Create the prefect balance they say. Oh I’m sorry, I didn’t know that I had to be Shakespeare and reach your impossible standards to get good grades. 


In social science, use specific terms. You would think that they are taking about important terms like revolution, patriarchy, civil war or something. Nope, it’s terms like vis-a-vis, dominant, value (and these are words from my test that have marks deduced for them) which had been replaced with words or phrases with similar or even the same meaning. Some of the information is also outdated, like the climate chapter which states that summer in Delhi ends in May when everyone knows that the full effect of summer is experienced in June. Even our teacher says that the text is outdated.


The worst part, this won’t happen to everyone just the smart kids. It wouldn’t even happen in the actual boards. But it will happen all throughout 10th in every test, emphasis on preboard 2. And if you are a student who scores above 90% in most exams. Well good luck cause the teacher’s will come after you like rabid animals. Unless you’re incredibly good at mugging up cause then you’re totally fine. The excuse for this? “You’re a smart kid and we are just pointing out your flaws so you can do better in the finals.” I guess this is kinda smart in some ways but it has four major negative side effects too.


One, setting seemingly impossible standards. For a student like me who has problem mugging up information, this system of exact terminology is stressful. Even besides that, there are some expectations (like the English one I mentioned) that are so ridiculous. How can you expect a 15-16 year old to cope up with this?


Two, disheartened students. I’m not usually one to fret over less marks. But God, this continuous feeling of not living up to even your own expectations is disheartening. Sure, soon enough this slump gets you even more determined to do better but the original feeling is absolutely horrible. And I’ve seen people not even take care of their health or become depressed due to this. Thankfully, I have no intentions of going down that path. 


Third, acceptance. This is not the good kind of acceptance where the student accepts their marks and moves on, studying hard for the next exam. In this acceptance, the student gets a slump in their marks, starts contemplating if they’re not actually as smart as they thought, lowers their own expectations and then still studies somewhat but doesn’t care what grade they get. This basically sucks out all the ambitiousness from inside a person.


Fourth and maybe the most important, parents. Fortunately, my parents have been very supportive and have encouraged me to do better. But they do have expectations, not unrealistic ones, but still present. And I feel so horrible when I let then down. I can only imagine what the child of a not so supportive parent feels like. 


I’m just talking about 10th, but all throughout your school experience, slowly-slowly students loose their inquisitiveness and become parrots who can repeat the words but not understand its meaning. Why is it that the despite having such a huge working population and being a tech hub, the number of innovative inventions and ideas that come up are limited in India? Students suicides, on the other hand, are enjoying a steady incline. Most of them are done due to stress of studies. Not encouraging suicide, there is always a better way, but this must indicate towards something. 


I see some of the smartest students I know getting their marks deducted cause they know too much or cause they don’t answer in the exact manner that the teacher wishes the answer to be in. This is complete stupidity!


I could easily rant more if I wanted to but I’ll just stop by quoting a line from the movie 3 Idiots (the best movie for any Indian student or even any student in the world). “Even the lion learns how to sit on the stool because of the fear of a whip. But we call that lion well-trained not well-educated.”


Unfortunately, it’ll take a long time for our country to understand this. 

La propagación del mortal Coronavirus podría deberse a una sopa hecha de murciélagos, que es muy popular en Wuhan. Los expertos sugirieron que los murciélagos podrían albergar al virus similar a la neumonía, que ha matado ya a 17 personas.

China ha confirmado más de 500 casos de la enfermedad y desde entonces ha puesto en cuarentena a Wuhan mientras el coronavirus continúa propagándose.

A lot of the joy in my life comes from telling my sister that she should do [dangerous science thing] and watch as she tries to explain to me why that is a Bad Idea because she KNOWS I’m messing with her but she can’t help it. She has to explain.

In other news, reblog if you think @phrenic-a should eat the algae they’re growing in their lab